Punja weaving forms part of India's glorious weaving traditions.
It is believed to be a time-tested and long-used method of flooring in India. The Durrie is a small carpet woven by women in rural areas on two parallel bars of looms. This carpet is found to be commonly used in Indian villages.
The hand made carpets of Rajasthan & UP also reflect Persian influence and the cotton durries have the most beautiful geometrical motifs and pastel shades. The wool dhurries are based on contemporary designs, which are geometric, floral or a play of colours which are close tonal variations of a shade.
The weaving technique produces weft-faced design in a dhurrie, in which the warp is made of cotton yarn, and the weft is made of wool yarn. The tensile strength of cotton yarn in the warp, provides a strong foundation to the rug. A claw-like device, called Punja, is used by the weavers to densely pack the weft yarn to almost hide the warp. The weaving technique used in producing wool Punja dhurries is called weft-faced plain weave or tapestry weave. This technique results in identical design on both the sides of the dhurrie.The wool yarn used in the weft is dyed before the start of the weaving on the loom. The weavers use horizontal pit looms as well as vertical looms to weave the dhurries. After the dhurrie is woven and taken off the loom, the excess fibre is sheared. Finally, the dhurrie is singed and then washed, before it is stretched to perfect its rectangular shape.